Unit 4: Human Cognition
This section of the course introduces students to differences between learned and unlearned behavior . The primary focus is exploration of different kinds of learning, including classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning . The biological bases of behavior illustrate predispositions for learning Students will learn how humans convert sensory input into kinds of information . They examine how humans learn, remember, and retrieve information . This part of the course also addresses problem solving, language, and creativity . An understanding of intelligence and assessment of individual differences is also highlighted in this portion of the course . Students must understand issues related to test construction and fair use .
• Distinguish general differences between principles of classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning (e .g ., contingencies) .
• Describe basic classical conditioning phenomena, such as acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, and higher-order learning .
• Predict the effects of operant conditioning (e .g ., positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment) .
• Predict how practice, schedules of reinforcement, and motivation will influence quality of learning .
• Interpret graphs that exhibit the results of learning experiments .
• Provide examples of how biological constraints create learning predispositions .
• Describe the essential characteristics of insight learning, latent learning, and social learning .
• Apply learning principles to explain emotional learning, taste aversion, superstitious behavior, and learned helplessness .
• Suggest how behavior modification, biofeedback, coping strategies, and self- control can be used to address behavioral problems .
• Identify key contributors in the psychology of learning (e .g ., Albert Bandura, John Garcia, Ivan Pavlov, Robert Rescorla, B . F . Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Edward Tolman, John B . Watson) .
Learning -DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY
The Self - DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY
How to Train a Brain - Crash Course Psychology #11
The Bobo Beatdown - Crash Course Psychology #12
• Compare and contrast various cognitive processes:
— effortful versus automatic processing; — deep versus shallow processing;
— focused versus divided attention .
• Describe and differentiate psychological and physiological systems of memory (e .g ., short-term memory, procedural memory) .
• Outline the principles that underlie effective encoding, storage, and construction of memories .
• Describe strategies for memory improvement .
Remembering and Forgetting -DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY
How We Make Memories - Crash Course Psychology #13
Remembering and Forgetting - Crash Course Psychology #14
Cognition: How Your Mind Can Amaze and Betray You - Crash Course Psychology #15
Language & Thought
•Synthesize how biological, cognitive, and cultural factors converge to facilitate acquisition, development, and use of language .
• Identify problem-solving strategies as well as factors that influence their ef fectiveness .
• List the characteristics of creative thought and creative thinkers .
• Identify key contributors in cognitive psychology (e .g ., Noam Chomsky, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Wolfgang Köhler, Elizabeth Loftus, George A . Miller) .
Language Development - DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY
Cognitive Processes- DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY
Language: Crash Course Psychology #16
Testing & Individual Differences
• Define intelligence and list characteristics of how psychologists measure intelligence:
— abstract versus verbal measures;
— speed of processing .
• Discuss how culture influences the definition of intelligence .
• Compare and contrast historic and contemporary theories of intelligence (e .g ., Charles Spearman, Howard Gardner, Robert Sternberg) .
• Explain how psychologists design tests, including standardization strategies and other techniques to establish reliability and validity .
• Interpret the meaning of scores in terms of the normal curve .
• Describe relevant labels related to intelligence testing (e .g ., gifted, cognitively disabled) .
• Debate the appropriate testing practices, particularly in relation to culture-fair test uses .
• Identify key contributors in intelligence research and testing (e .g ., Alfred Binet, Francis Galton, Howard Gardner, Charles Spearman, Robert Sternberg, Louis Terman, David Wechsler) .
Testing and Intelligence- DISCOVERING PSYCHOLOGY
Controversy of Intelligence: Crash Course Psychology #23
Brains Vs. Bias: Crash Course Psychology #24
Beautiful Minds: Stephen Wiltshire